Demystifying Diabetes: Types, Causes, and Risk Factors

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It’s a complex and often misunderstood ailment, which is why it’s crucial to demystify diabetes by understanding its various types, causes, and the risk factors involved. In this article, we’ll delve into the world of diabetes to provide you with a comprehensive overview.

Understanding Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that disrupts the way your body processes glucose (sugar), the primary source of energy for your cells. Glucose comes from the foods you eat and is carried by your blood to your cells for energy. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, acts as the key to open your cells, allowing glucose to enter.

Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes: This type typically develops in childhood or adolescence. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. People with Type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy for survival.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: This is the most common form and often develops in adulthood. In Type 2 diabetes, the body’s cells become resistant to insulin, and the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance.
  • Gestational Diabetes: This type occurs during pregnancy when the body can’t produce enough extra insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after childbirth, but it increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

Causes of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

  • Genetics: Family history plays a significant role, as those with close relatives who have Type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk.
  • Environmental Triggers: Certain infections and exposure to specific viruses may trigger the autoimmune response that leads to Type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes

  • Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdomen, increases the risk.
  • Lifestyle: Poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyles, and high-stress levels can contribute.
  • Genetics: Family history can play a role in Type 2 diabetes risk.

Risk Factors

  1. Age: The risk of Type 2 diabetes increases with age, especially after 45.
  2. Family History: Having close relatives with diabetes can elevate your risk.
  3. Weight: Being overweight or obese significantly increases your risk, particularly if the excess weight is carried around the abdomen.
  4. Physical Inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of Type 2 diabetes.
  5. Race and Ethnicity: Certain ethnic groups, such as African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, have a higher risk.

Gestational Diabetes: A history of gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds can increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes.


Demystifying diabetes involves recognizing its types, understanding its causes, and being aware of the risk factors. If you or someone you know is at risk or has diabetes, it’s essential to work with healthcare professionals to manage the condition effectively. Early diagnosis and management can lead to a healthier and better quality of life for those with diabetes.

For personalized guidance on diabetes management and risk reduction, book a consultation with IGAKU and take proactive steps toward your well-being. Don’t let diabetes remain a mystery; take control of your health today.

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